Aquaculture can be simply and best described as the rearing (day to day confined management) of either fauna (animal) or flora (plant) in aquatic (water) environment. Basically aquaculture became necessary due to human need for consumption of aquatic fauna, which was basically sourced from the wild (capture aquaculture). The increase in global human population over time from generation to generation was noticed to continuously deplete the wild stock; therefore culturing the mostly required species (fauna stock) became imperative and gave birth to aquaculture. The peculiarity of each aquatic environment varies usually from one continent to another; hence the quality of flora and fauna native and appreciated varies from one continent to another.
Going on, it was also discovered the quality of flora and fauna native to the two types of aquatic environment (i.e. Fresh and Salt water) varies. Over the years, research started on how to go about aquaculture, which based on the aforementioned reasons is differently practiced globally depending on peculiarity of each environment.
Aquaculture can therefore be further simplified into;
AQUA FAUNA: Much emphasis is place on this area of aquaculture mainly due to the primary purpose it serves, which is human consumption. This area of aquaculture has been greatly developed based on preference given to variety of aquatic animals suitable for human consumption globally. Hence, this preference has brought about further categorization of fauna into FIN FISH and SHELL FISH. However, the fin and shell fish are of great importance in aquaculture depending on locality. Most of the development in aquaculture is largely focused on fin fish, which is due to its preference for consumption globally.
AQUA FLORA: This area of aquatic culture was initially focused on due it importance in aesthetic value. It grew to its importance in beautifying the environment. Further research has also created awareness in culturing specific aquatic fauna (weed) to serve as food to herbivorous aquatic animals.
Our focus primarily will be on Aqua fauna, fish culture to be precise in order to help fill the gap in information required to successfully culture desired marketable fish. Different fish species (types) are native to different countries as earlier mentioned. Fish culture is what comes to the mind at the mention of aquaculture, basically to the need, possibility and culture ability of most desired fish species. Successful aquaculture mainly has been carried out in freshwater, largely due to its possibility. Below is a list of few commonly cultured fish species;